1885 Isithembu Case Central kwi Lesbian Umhlolokazi DOMA Indlebe

Ingqokelela ye-Kean / i-Archive Iifoto/iMifanekiso yeGetty

Igqwetha leenkokeli House Republican kwafuneka ukufikelela yonke indlela emva 1885 namhlanje xa ebuzwa apho ukuqonda ngokwemveli umtshato inokufumaneka kumthetho wecala federal - ebhekisela kwityala elijongene nesithembu kwintsimi Utah.



Loo meko , wagqiba malunga nesithembu e-Utah ngaphambi kokuba abafazi baqinisekiswe ukuba banelungelo lokuvota, beza kuphela iminyaka engama-20 emva kokuphela kweMfazwe yoLuntu kunye neminyaka engaphezu kwe-80 ngaphambi kokuba inkundla ibethe imitshato yobuhlanga. Namhlanje, yayiyenye yeengxoxo ezisisiseko kwityala leenkokeli zeNdlu yeRiphabhlikhi ukuba iNkundla ePhakamileyo ithathele ingqalelo 'ingqiqo yemveli' yomtshato efunwa nguMthetho woKhuselo loMtshato.



Igqwetha leRiphabhlikhi, uPaul Clement, akazange asebenzise igama elithi 'isithembu.' Kodwa ityala 1885 kunye nezinye iinzame karhulumente ejolise ekuyekeni isithembu weza kulo lonke namhlanje ukuva malunga nomgaqo-siseko DOMA kaThixo.

UClement, oye waxoxisana nezizathu ezininzi eziphakamileyo zokukhusela kunyaka odlulileyo, wayesenkundleni namhlanje eNew York ekhusela inkcazo ye-federal yomtshato kunye neqabane eliqulethwe kwi-DOMA. Uxoxa ityala leenkokheli ze-House Republican kuba uMongameli u-Obama kunye neGqwetha Jikelele u-Eric Holder bagqiba ukuba i-DOMA ayihambelani nomgaqo-siseko ngoFebruwari 2011 kwaye wayeka ukukhusela imingeni yenkundla kumthetho ngelo xesha.



Inkundla yesibini yezibheno yomanyano ukuba ithathele ingqalelo umgaqo-siseko womthetho, iingxoxo zanamhlanje phambi kweejaji ezintathu zeNkundla yeSibheno yeSekethe yeSibheno ziye zafika nanjengoko amatyala amaninzi - kubandakanywa neli - aye anikezelwa kwiNkundla ePhakamileyo ukuze ihlaziywe. Noko ke, ngenxa yokuba iNkundla Ephakamileyo ingenzanga nto, isibheno kwityala lika-Edith Windsor siye phambili namhlanje.

Iingxoxo zazikwimiba efana ne iingxoxo eziviwa ngoAprili phambi kweNkundla yeZibheno yeSekethe yokuQala eBoston, leyo uzimisele ukuba umthetho awuhambisani nomgaqo-siseko. Iingxoxo zanamhlanje, nangona kunjalo, zibandakanya ukuvunywa kukaClement ukuba iinkundla zithatha isigqibo sokuba imithetho ejolise kubantu abathandana nabasetyhini kunye nabasetyhini kufuneka ijongwe ngendlela ethandabuzekayo, njengaleyo isekelwe kubuhlanga okanye ngokwesondo, kuya kuba nzima ngakumbi ukuyithethelela i-DOMA.

Oko kutshiwo, ndiza kuzama, uClement uxelele iijaji, ephawula ukuba ‘akukho ndlela yokulondoloza inkcazelo yomtshato [njengendoda enye nomfazi omnye] ngaphandle kokugcina inkcazelo. Iba isangqa noko.



Umbuzo wezinga lokuphonononga eliza kusetyenziswa kwii-classifications, njenge-DOMA, elo qela labantu elisekelwe kwisimo sabo sezesondo ngumba omkhulu oxoxwa ngawo namhlanje. Inqanaba lokuphonononga yindlela ezithi iinkundla zinyanzelise ngayo isiqinisekiso soMgaqo-siseko sokhuseleko olulinganayo lwemithetho. Imithetho eyahlula-hlulwe ngokobuhlanga iphantsi koqwalaselo olungqongqo, nto leyo ethetha ukuba urhulumente kufuneka abonise ukuba lo mthetho uchaphazelekayo uyahlangabezana nomdla onyanzelisayo. Kwimithetho ehlela ngokwesondo, inkundla ibabeka phantsi kophononongo oluphakathi kwaye urhulumente kufuneka abonise umdla obalulekileyo karhulumente ophakanyiswa ngumthetho. Ukuba ulwahlulo alukho phakathi kwezo ndawo zokuphononongwa okuphezulu, ngoko urhulumente kufuneka abonise ukuba kukho isiseko esisemthethweni, okanye esinengqiqo, somthetho.

Igqwetha lika-Windsor, umhlolokazi omangalela ukubuyisela i-350,000 yeedola zerhafu ye-federal estate wanyanzelwa ukuba ayihlawule ngenxa yokuba i-DOMA ithintele umtshato wakhe nomfazi ukuba uqatshelwe ngurhulumente wobumbano, waphawula izimvo zikaClement xa wayebeka ityala lakhe kubagwebi. Esithi igqwetha leNdlu yaseRiphabhlikhi alizange lichaze ukuba umthetho unokugcinwa njani phantsi koqwalaselo oluphezulu xa ityala liphambi kwejaji, uRoberta Kaplan uxelele abagwebi, Wazama ukuyenza namhlanje. Andiqondi ukuba iyasebenza.

Ukuze kuthathwe isigqibo ngenqanaba lokuphonononga eliza kusetyenziswa, iinkundla zijonga izinto ezifana nokuba uphawu olukhoyo aluguquki kwaye alunxulumananga namandla omntu okwenza okanye abe negalelo kuluntu nokuba iqela ekuthethwa ngalo linenqanaba lokungabi namandla kwezopolitiko kunye nembali. yocalucalulo. Iinkokeli zeNdlu yaseRiphabhlikhi zixoxa ukuba ezo zinto kufuneka zikhokele iinkundla ukuba zigqibe kwelokuba isiseko esinengqiqo kuphela esisebenzayo.

imibono yokuhombisa yegumbi lokuhlala

UClement waxoxa ukuba ama-gays kunye nama-lesbians anamandla aqinisekisiweyo okufumana ingqalelo yabaqulunqi bomthetho, eqaphela ukuba ngaphezu kwe-130 abenzi bomthetho bafake inkcazo emfutshane kunye nenkundla exhasa umngeni we-Windsor. Ngenxa yoko, uthe, akucaci ukuba kutheni bedinga iinkundla ukuba zingenelele. Wongeze ngelithi abantu abathandana nabasetyhini kunye nabasetyhini, ngokungafaniyo nabantu abantsundu kunye nabasetyhini, abakaze bajongane nesithintelo sesakhiwo esibathintela ekuvoteni.

U-Stuart Delery, umncedisi wegqwetha jikelele elibambeleyo, ukwimeko engaqhelekanga yokumela urhulumente wobumbano kwaye exoxa ukuba umthetho wobumbano obukhuselwe ngurhulumente wobumbano ukusukela ekugqithisweni kwawo ngo-1996 ukuya kutsho ngo-2011 eneneni awukho ngokomgaqo-siseko. Xa urhulumente watshintsha isikhundla sakhe kwi-2011, wenza njalo ngenxa yokuba, ngokusekelwe kwimeko ka-Windsor, u-Obama kunye noMphathi baphetha ngokuthi ukuhlelwa kwe-sexual orientation-based njenge-DOMA kufuneka ithotyelwe kuhlobo oluthile lokuhlolwa okuphezulu.

Ngaloo ndlela, u-Delery wajoyina u-Kaplan ekubaleni amabango kaClement, eqaphela ubukho bemithetho ye-sodomy kwaze kwaba sisigqibo seNkundla ePhakamileyo ka-2003 esibetha ngokungahambisani nomgaqo-siseko. Ebiza loo mithetho isimemo socalucalulo lukawonke-wonke nolwabucala oluchasene nabantu abathandana nabasetyhini, abathandana nabasetyhini kunye nabasetyhini, uDelery waxoxa ukuba ukuziqhelanisa ngokwesondo akunanto yokwenza nokubanakho komntu ukuba negalelo kuluntu.

UDelery, nangona kunjalo, wajongana nokutyhala kwiJaji eyiNtloko uDennis Jacobs, iGeorge H.W. Bush oqeshwe kwibhentshi ethe yaqaphela isikhundla esitshintshileyo solawulo malunga nomgaqo-siseko womthetho, kwaye esithi, Ubukho bakho apha yingxoxo echasene nengxoxo yakho.

Nangona u-Delery evuma ukubaluleka kwesikhundla esitshintshileyo solawulo, waphikisa ukuba amalungelo abantu abathandana nabasetyhini kunye nabasetyhini bahlala belahlekelwa xa bevotelwa. UKaplan, kwelakhe icala, uphawule ukuba amazwe angaphezu kwama-30 anokuvalwa ngokusemthethweni okanye ngokomgaqo-siseko kubantu besini esifanayo abatshatayo.

Ukuba inkundla ikwicala likaClement kwaye igqibe kwelokuba isiseko esinengqiqo siyasebenza kwi-DOMA, emva koko uKaplan - iqabane e-Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP, esebenzisana ne-American Civil Liberties Union kwityala likaWindsor - waxoxisana enkundleni. ukuba i-DOMA isengahambelani nomgaqo-siseko ngenxa yokuba izizathu eziphakanyiswe ziinkokeli zeNdlu yaseRiphabhlikhi aziboneleli nangesiseko esinengqiqo sokugcina umthetho. Isigqibo esinjalo siya kuvakala isigqibo yeNkundla yeSibheno yeSekethe yokuQala ekuqaleni kwalo nyaka xa iqinisekisa isigwebo senkundla esezantsi sokuba i-DOMA ayihambelani nomgaqo-siseko.

Eso sigqibo sisebenzise indlela yokukhangela ngakumbi yokuhlola isiseko esinengqiqo-isiseko esinengqiqo-kunye, abanye bayibiza ngokuba - ngenxa yobume bongenelelo lomanyano lwe-DOMA kwindima yesiqhelo yombuso yokuchaza ukuba ngubani onokutshata nongenako ukutshata. Ephendula umbuzo malunga nesigqibo sikaJaji uChristopher Droney, oqeshwe ngu-Obama, uClement uthe, 'Akukho nkxaso' 'yokuhlanganisa' evela kwizinto ezixhalabisayo. 'Amanqanaba amathathu okuphonononga anele.'

UClement uphinde waxoxa ukuba ukongeza kwinkcazo ye-DOMA yomtshato ngumzamo oqhelekileyo wokugcina izibonelelo ze-federal - 'umgca-umzobo,' iinkokeli zeNdlu yaseRiphabhlikhi ziphikisana - iCongress inesiseko esinengqiqo sokukhetha ukufana kumgaqo-nkqubo wesizwe kule ndawo eguqukayo ngaphezu kokuhlonipha amazwe. ' izigqibo kulo mba.

U-Kaplan uphendule ukuba ukugcinwa kwemali asikho, ngaphandle kwesinye isiseko, isizathu sokugcina i-DOMA. Ngokubhekiselele kwingxoxo efanayo, ephinda isigqibo seSekethe yokuQala, uKaplan wathi ukufana sele kulapha, ebhekisa ekuthomalaliseni kwiinkcazo zomtshato.

UChris Geidner

U-Edith Windsor uthetha neentatheli eManhattan ngoSeptemba 27, 2012.

Kwisigqibo sakhe sokuvala, uClement uxelele inkundla ukuba iCongress ikugqithisile ukuzimisela kwamazwe ngomtshato. Wanika imizekelo emibini: imithetho yobuqhophololo kunye nemiqathango ebekwe kuburhulumente obujoliswe ekuyekiseni isithembu.

Ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-30 ngaphambi kokuba uMgaqo-siseko wase-US utshintshwe ukuze uthintele ucalucalulo lokuvota olusekelwe kwisini, iNkundla ePhakamileyo yaxhasa umgaqo-siseko womthetho owawufuna ukuba abo bakwindawo yase-Utah bathathe isifungo esiquka isitatimende sokuba indoda yaphula i-bigamy okanye izithintelo zesithembu.

Ityala, elikhankanya igama elibi UDkt Scott Isigqibo seNkundla ePhakamileyo esichaza ukuba amakhoboka ayengengobemi phantsi koMgaqo-siseko wase-US njengobungqina bamagunya karhulumente kwimimandla, sakhankanywa nguClement. Kuyimeko, uxelele iJaji uChester Straub, oqeshwe nguClinton ebhentshini, apho iNkundla ePhakamileyo ibhekisele 'ngokuqonda ngokwemveli' komtshato.

Icala le-1885 lithatha umgca onzima kwindima yomtshato kwisizwe emva kweMfazwe yoLuntu, ngokubhekiselele kwisenzo sesithembu kwintsimi yase-Utah.

Inkundla yabhala ukuba 'akukho mthetho unokucingelwa ukuba ulungile kwaye uyimfuneko ekusekweni komanyano lwezizwe ngezizwe olukhululekileyo, oluzilawulayo ... kunalowo ufuna ukuwuseka ngokwesiseko sembono yosapho [iquka] kwaye iphuma ukumanyana kobomi bendoda enye nomfazi omnye kwilifa elingcwele lomtshato.’

Loo nkcazelo yomtshato, inkundla yabhala ngowe-1885, 'isisiseko esiqinisekileyo sayo yonke into ezinzileyo nendilekileyo kwimpucuko yethu; esona siqinisekiso sokuziphatha sinentlonipho esingumthombo wayo yonke inkqubela entle ekuphuculweni kwezentlalo nezopolitiko.'

Amanqaku Umdla